小学英语复习资料1

学习用品类:pen(钢笔), pencil(铅笔), book(书), eraser(橡皮), ruler(尺子), pencil-case(铅笔盒), marker(彩笔), bag(书包), glue(胶水), scissors(剪刀), paper(纸), sharpener(卷笔刀).

教室内物品类:door(门), window(窗户), blackboard(黑板), desk(课桌), chair(椅子), map(地图), picture(图画), light(灯), chalk(粉笔), floor(地板), wall(墙).

房间名称类:house(房子), apartment(公寓), room(房间), bedroom(卧室), living room(客厅), kitchen(厨房), bathroom(卫生间).

家用物品类:bed(床), television=TV(电视), table(桌子), telephone(电话), computer(电脑), refrigerator=fridge(电冰箱), closet(衣橱), dresser(床头柜), lamp(台灯), sofa(沙发), couch(长沙发), camera(照相机), cup(茶杯), glass(玻璃杯), bowl(碗), dish(盘子), chopsticks(筷子), spoon(勺子), fork(叉子), towel(毛巾), sink(水槽), stove(炉子), toilet(马桶), shower(淋浴器), bathtub(浴盆), brush(刷子), toothbrush(牙刷), umbrella(雨伞).

交通工具类:bus(公共汽车), car(小汽车), truck(大卡车), bicycle=bike(自行车), train(火车), airplane=plane(飞机), ship(轮船), boat(小船), taxi(出租车), cab(出租小汽车).

人体部位类:body(身体), head(头), hair(头发), eye(眼睛), ear(耳朵), nose(鼻子), mouth(嘴), face(脸), neck(脖子), shoulder(肩膀), arm(胳膊), elbow(胳膊肘), hand(手), finger(手指), stomach (肚子), leg(腿), knee(膝盖), foot(脚)→复数feet, toe(脚趾).

动物名称类:cat(猫), dog(狗), pig(猪), duck(鸭子), goose(鹅)→复数geese, bird(鸟), chicken(母鸡), chick(小鸡), cock(公鸡), bee(蜜蜂), butterfly(蝴蝶), cow(奶牛), horse(马), rabbit(兔子), monkey(猴子), panda(熊猫), tiger(老虎), lion(狮子), bear(熊), elephant(大象), donkey(驴), snake(蛇), frog(青蛙), fish(鱼), sheep(绵羊), goat(山羊), fox(狐狸), wolf(狼), mouse(老鼠)→复数mice, zebra(斑马), camel(骆驼), deer(鹿), giraffe(长颈鹿), kangaroo(袋鼠).

水果名称类:apple(苹果), banana(香蕉), pear(梨子), peach(桃子), orange(桔子), grape(葡萄), strawberry(草莓), melon(瓜), watermelon(西瓜), pineapple(菠萝), mango(芒果), coconut(椰子). 食品名称类:bread(面包), egg(鸡蛋), hamburger(汉堡包), sandwich(三明治), hot dog(热狗), ice cream(冰激凌), cake(蛋糕), cookies(饼干), pizza(比萨饼), donut(面包圈), toast(烤面包), jam(果酱), noodles(面条), dumplings(饺子), rice(米饭), soup(汤), French fries(炸薯条), sausage(香肠), beef(牛肉), mutton(羊肉), fish(鱼肉), pork(猪肉), chicken(鸡肉).

蔬菜名称类:cabbage(卷心菜), onion(洋葱), carrot(胡萝卜), pea(豌豆), eggplant(茄子), tomato(西红柿), potato(土豆), beans(豆子).

饮料名称类:juice(果汁), milk(牛奶), pop(汽水), coffee(咖啡), coke(可乐), tea(茶), water(水).

家庭成员类: grandfather(祖父/外祖父), grandmother(祖母/外祖母), grandpa(爷爷/姥爷), grandma(奶奶/姥姥), father(父亲), dad(爸爸), mother(母亲), mum/mom(妈妈), brother(兄/弟), sister(姐/妹), uncle(伯/叔/舅/姑/姨父), aunt(伯/婶/舅/姑/姨母), cousin(堂/表兄弟姐妹).

职业名称类:doctor(医生), nurse(护士), teacher(老师), worker(工人), driver(司机), farmer(农民), policeman(警察), pupil(小学生), student(中学生), clerk(职员), businessman(男商人), businesswoman(女商人), waiter(男服务员), waitress(女服务员), cashier(收银员), writer(作家), singer(歌手), actor(演员), dancer(舞蹈演员).

服装名称类:blouse(男衬衫), shirt(女衬衫), T-shirt(T恤衫), skirt(短裙), dress(连衣裙), jacket(夹克衫), cap(太阳帽), hat(礼帽), coat(大衣), sweater(毛衣), pants (长裤), shorts(短裤), jeans(牛仔裤), sock(袜子), shoe(鞋子), sandals(露趾凉鞋), mittens=mitts(连指手套), gloves(分指手套), scarf(围巾), raincoat(雨衣), swimsuit(游泳衣).

球类名称类:basketball(篮球), football(足球), volleyball(排球), tennis(网球), ping-pong=table

tennis(乒乓球), badminton(羽毛球), baseball(棒球).

方位名称类:east(东方),west(西方), north(北方), south(南方).

公共场所类:park(公园), library(图书馆), gym(体育馆), shop(商店), store(商场), cinema=movie theatre(电影院), restaurant(餐馆), market(市场), hotel(宾馆).

一日三餐类:breakfast(早餐), lunch(午餐), supper=dinner(晚餐).

季节名称类:season(季节), winter(冬季), spring(春季), summer(夏季), fall=autumn(秋季).

星期名称类:week(周), Sunday(星期日), Monday(星期一), Tuesday(星期二), Wednesday(星期

三),Thursday(星期四), Friday(星期五), Saturday(星期六).

月份名称类:month(月), January(一月), February(二月), March(三月), April(四月), May(五月), June(六月), July(七月), August(八月), September(九月), October(十月), November(十一月), December(十二月).

图形名称类:shape(图形、形状), line(直线), circle(圆形), square(方形), triangle(三角形).

节日名称类:New Year’s Day(新年、元旦), Spring Festival(春节), Women’s Day(妇女节), International workers’ Day=May Day(国际劳动节), Children’s Day(儿童节), Teachers’ Day(教师节), National Day(国庆节), Christmas Day(圣诞节).

教材中所学过的不规则动词的过去式分类记忆表

a.完全不规则:am,is-was, are-were, do/does-did, go-went, see-saw, say-said, have/has-had, fly-flew, speak-spoke, buy-bought, bring-brought, think-thought, teach-taught, eat-ate, lie-lay, can-could, will-would.

b.改变其中的元、辅音字母:give-gave, get-got, forget-forgot, come-came, run-ran, sing-sang, write-wrote,draw-drew, drink-drank, ride-rode, swim-swam, shine-shone, find-found, win-won, lose-lost, make-made.

c.原形和过去式同形:read-read, put-put, hit-hit, hurt-hurt, cost-cost.

教材中常用交际用语汇总记忆表

问候:Hi! Hello! Good morning/afternoon/evening! Nice to meet you! Nice to meet you, too. A:How are you? B: Fine,thank you./Very well,thank you.

介绍:My name is ____. / I am a student. / I’m from Canada. /This is ______.

告别:Good-bye! /Bye! /Bye-bye!Good night!See you later /tomorrow!

感谢:-Thank you(very much)/ Thanks a lot. -That’s OK. / That’s All right. / You are welcome. / Not at all.

道歉:-Sorry. / I am sorry. -That’s OK. / It’s all right.

邀请:-Would you like to go for a walk? / Will /Would you come to my birthday party?-Sure. / No, thanks.

请求允许:-May I go on a trip to Beijing?-Yes, you may. / No, you may not. / Sure. / Certainly. -Can I use your pencil?-Of course, you can.

祝愿与祝贺:Have a lovely day! / Good luck! / Happy New Year! / Merry Christmas!

You, too. / The same to you. -Happy birthday!-Thank you.

约会:A:Would you like to play with me this afternoon?B: Yes. When? A:At 12:00.

B: See you then.

打电话:A:Hello! May I speak to Mr. Wood? B:Yes, just a moment, please.

A:Hello! Is Kim there? B:No /Sorry, can I take a message.

就医:A:What’s the matter?/What’s wrong with you? B:I hurt my finger. I have a headache /stomachache.

就餐:A:Would you like something to eat / drink? B: Yes. I would like rice and chicken. A:What would you like? B:I would like some tea.

A:Would you like some more dumplings? B:Yes, please. / No, thanks / thank you.

A:May I have some more soup? B:It’s delicious.Sure / OK.

购物:A:Can/May/I help you? B: Yes. I want to buy a dress, please.

A:Here you are. B: May I try it on? A:Ok/Sure. B: It’s too big/small.

A:This one is just right. B: How much is it/ are they? A:One hundred yuan /dollars. B: It’s too expensive. /It’s very cheap. But I like it. I’ll take it.

问路:A:Excuse me. Do you know where is the________?

B: Yes. Go straight down the street. Turn left /turn right.

提供帮助:A: Can I help you? /May I help you? B: Yes, please. / No, thanks.

询问对方姓名:A:What’s your name? B:My name is ____.

A:What’s his/ her name? B: His /her name is ___.

A:Who are you? B: I’m _____.

询问在那儿:A: Where is the book? B:It is on the desk.

A:Where is Jenny? B:She is behind Danny.

询问是什么:A:What is it? B: It is a marker.

询问颜色:A:What colour is the sweater? B:It is black.

询问时间:A:What time is it? B: It’s seven.

A:When is Teachers’Day? B: It’s on September tenth.

询问地址和住址:A:Where are you from? B: I’m from Canada.

A:What’s your address? B: My address is 111 Park Road.

A:Where do you live? B: I live in an apartment.

询问日期:A:What day is today? B: It’s Monday.

A:What day is tomorrow? B: It’s Tuesday.

A:What day was yesterday? B: It was Sunday.

A:What’s the date? B: It’s October 19th.

询问对方正做什么:A:What are you doing? B: I’m writinging a letter.

A:What is he/ she doing? B: He /she is playing.

A:What are they doing? B: They are learning English.

询问对方做过些什么:A:What did you do? B: I went to the gym.

A:What did they do? B: They played basketball.

询问对方将要做什么:A:What will you do? B: I will fly a kite.

A:What is he going to do? B: He is going to learn English.

询问对方最喜欢的事物:A:What’s your favourite colour /food / fruit /shape/ season?

B: My favourite colour is white.

询问数量:A:How many pencils do you have? B: I have 10 pencils.

A:How many birds can you see? B: I can see 20 birds.

A:How many days are there in a week? B: There are seven days in a week.

询问价钱:A:How much is the scarf? B: Twenty yuan.

A:How much are the runners? B: They are thirty dollars.

谈论天气气温:A:How’s the weather today? B: It’s sunny/cloudy/windy/snowy.

A:What’s the temperature? B: It’s _______degrees.

询问年龄:A:How old are you? B:I’m fourteen years old.

A:How old is she/ he? B: He/ She is twenty .

询问身高:A:How tall are you? B: I’m 1.6 metres tall.

A:How tall is she/ he? B: She/ he is 1.7 metres tall.

询问事情发生的频率:

A:How often do you play basketball? B: About once a week.

A:How often does my mother clean my bedroom? B: Twice a day.

询问事情距离长短:A:How long is the trip? B: About two hours to Beijing.

A:How long does he go to school a day ? B: Eight hours.

询问路程的远近:

A:How far is it from here to Beijing? B: It’s one hundred kiliometres.

询问对方感觉怎么样: A:How do you feel? B: I feel sad.

询问对方是谁,问谁在做些什么?A:Who is this? B: This is a man.

A:Who is talking? B: Danny is talking.

询问东西是谁的:A:Whose hat is this? B: This is my hat /mine.

询问原因:A: I like to eat vegetables. Why? B:Because it’s good for your heal

英语一、将3——6年级所学单词系统列之,学生自学后加以辅导,并要求做到写、译。

二、单词分类复习。

1、字母:大小写辨认、排序。

2、数字:基数词和序数词(1-20;20-30;一百以内整十数)

3、颜色类:红、橙、黄、绿、蓝、黑、白、紫、粉、棕…..

4、时间类:年、月、日、星期、季节、时刻、早上、中午,下午、晚上…..

5、服饰类:衣帽鞋袜,短裙,连衣裙,T-恤,短裤,长裤…..

6、蔬菜类:白菜,洋葱,豌豆,胡萝卜,土豆,西红柿…..

7、食物:饺子,面条,面包,蛋糕,饼干,汉堡包,炸薯条,面包圈…..

8、水果类:苹果,梨,香蕉,橘子,葡萄,草莓,西瓜….

9、动物类:十二生肖

10、身体部位:头、脸,眼,耳,鼻,肩膀,胳膊,手,手指,膝盖,小腿,脚,脚趾。

11、家庭成员:爸,妈,(外)祖父母,兄弟,姐妹,(表、堂)兄弟姐妹,叔叔,阿姨。

12、方位:上,下,左,右,前,后,里,外,旁边,里面,外面…..

13、天气:风,云,雨,雪,阳光…..

14、地点:厨房,客厅,卧室,浴室,图书室,体育馆,商场,商店,车站,机场……

15、节日及时间:春节,新年,植树节,妇女节,劳动节,儿童节,建军节,教师节,母亲节,父亲节,感恩节,圣诞节…..

16、疑问词:what, where , who, how,when ,why……

17、系动词(be):am, is, are, will…..

18、情态动词can, may, must, would…

19、助动词:do, does, did ……

20、交通工具:火车,自行车,公共汽车,小汽车,飞机,船……

三、语法分类复习。

一)、名词。包括可数名词(有单数和复数的区别)和不可数名词。

a.不可数名词如:chalk, snow, rain, cake, ice cream, fish…..

b.可数名词变复数形式的情况:

1)、一般在名词末尾直接加s,如:books, flowers, pens, stamps…

2)、以s,x, ch, sh结尾的名词,末尾加es,如: buses, beaches, fishes…

3)、以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y为i,再加es,如: family-families, story-stories…

4)、单复数同形的:sheep,people,fish …

5)、不规则变化的:man-men, woman-women, child-children, wolf-wolves, leaf-leaves…

二)、动词。(包括动词的原形、现在分词、过去式和第三人称单数形式)

动词的现在分词,用于现在进行时态,其构成一般规律:

1、一般在动词末尾加ing:

talking reading flying looking cooking eating…

2、动词末尾是不发音的e,去掉e,再加ing:

take-taking come-coming ride-riding

have-having make-making …

3、以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的,双写这个辅音字母,再加ing:

run-running sit-sitting put-putting

begin-beginning hit-hitting swimming…

动词的过去式,用于一般过去时,其变化如下:

1、一般动词在末尾加ed:

looked talked played wanted walked …

2、以不发音的e结尾的,只加d:

write-writed like-liked …

3、有些动词的原形和过去式同形:sit put hurt read hit …

4、不规则变化的动词,要求学生熟记:

buy-bought bring-brought teach-taught

think-thought say-said go-went

see-saw come-came am,is-was

are-were eat-ate throw-threw

swim-swam lie-lay do-did

write-wrote make-made draw-drew…

动词的第三人称单数形式,用于一般现在时态,主语是第三人称单数的情况,其变化如下:

1、一般在动词末尾加s:

says asks sings answers looks makes…

2、以s、x、ch、sh结尾的动词加es:

teaches brushes…

3、以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y为i,再加es:

fly-flies try-tries…

四、简单的词性变化

1、名词变形容词

有些名词末尾加y,可以转变成形容词,如:

rain-rainy cloud-cloudy wind-windy

snow-snowy …

这些名词中,以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的,要双写这个字母,再加y:

sun-sunny

2、形容词变副词:

有些形容词的末尾加ly,可以转化成副词:

sad-sadly happy-happily slow-slowly

quiet-quietly loud-loudly quick-quickly…

3、形容词、副词的比较级:

a、在词尾加er: taller, shorter, younger, older…

b、以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的,双写这个辅音字母再加er: bigger

c、以辅音字母+y结尾的,去y变i,再加er: early-earlier

d、以不发音的e结尾的,只加r:late-later

f、不规则的变化形式:good-better

4、动词变名词

a.动名词的变化方法同动词的现在分词变化方法相同。

b.专门从事该项活动的职业者,在动词后加er或r,如:

play-player drive-driver farm-farmer…

五、简单的句子知识

1、陈述句

陈述句中,要注意的是主语和谓语部分的时态和人称的一致。如:

I am writing.

Li Ming likes French fries.

Danny bought ice cream yesterday.

2、一般疑问句

一般疑问句是将陈述句中的动词提到主语的前面,或在句首加助动词构成的问句,有肯定yes和否定no两种回答。如:

把be动词提到主语前面的:

She is a teacher.-Is she a teacher?

We are children. –Are you children?

把情态动词提到主语前面的:

I can sing well. –Can you sing well?

You may sit now. –May I sit now?

在句首加助动词的,原来句中的实意动词要恢复原形:

Li Nan likes donuts. –Does Li Nan like donuts?

Danny ate a hot dog yesterday. –Did Danny eat a hot dog yesterday?

You eat supper at 7:00. –Do you eat supper at 7:00?

3、特殊疑问句

特殊疑问句是由疑问词加上一般疑问句构成的疑问句,答语为陈述句,必须与问题一一对应。

询问年龄,用how old

How old is Jenny? She is eleven.

询问颜色,用what colour

What colour is your hair? It’s black.

询问数量,用how many

How many markers do you have? I have twelve markers.

询问价格,用how much

How much is a stamp? 2 yuan.

询问行为方式,用how

How do you go to school? By bus.

询问具体时刻,用what time

What time is it now? It’s 6:30.

询问时间,用when

When is Teacher’s Day? It’s September tenth.

询问多长时间,用how long

-How long is the trip?

-It’s eleven hours to Beijing.

询问地方,用where

Where is the book? It’s on the desk.

询问身高,用how tall

How tall is Xiao Ming? He is 1.3 meters tall.

询问事情的频率,用how often

How often do they play basketball?

They play basketball three times a week.

询问两地间距离,用how far:

How far is it from Canada to Beijing?

It’s about nine thousand kilometers.

询问天气,用

How’s the weather today?

It’s rainy.

询问星期,用what day

what day is it?

It(Today) is Wednesday.

询问日期,用

what is the date?

It’s January fourth.

询问姓名,用

What is your(his) name?

My name is Danny.

询问职业,用

What do you do?

I’am a teacher.

六、日常问、答用语。

1、- Good morning/ afternoon/evening. 早上/下午/晚上好。

- Good morning/ afternoon/evening. 早上/下午/晚上好。

2、- How are you? 你好吗?

- Fine, thank you/ thanks. 我很好,谢谢。(反问对方)And

about you?(你呢?)

3、- How do you do? 你好。(用于初次见面)

- How do you do?你好。

4、- Nice to meet /see you. 很高兴认识/见到你。

- Nice to meet /see you. 很高兴认识/见到你。

you / what about you /how

5、- Thank you./ Thanks. 谢谢。

- You’re welcome. 不用谢。

6、- I’m sorry. 对不起。

- hat’s all right. 没关系。

7、Excuse me.打扰一下

8、- May I have a book,please? 请问,能给我一本书吗?

- Yes./All right. Here you are. 好的。给你

9、- Can you help me ? 你能帮我吗?

- Sure. 当然(可以)。

七、介词的用法。

1、a和an(以a、e、i、o、u开头的单数名词前表示―一个‖时用an.其他―一个用a‖),any(用语疑问句和否定句)和some(用语肯定句),and(多方人称都做主语时)和with(一方作主语,而另一方则在句末)的用法区别。

2、or的用法(表示选择,择其一回答)。

3、介词用于时间短语时at/in/on/的用法区别。(在一天中的具体某一时刻前用at,在一天中某一段时间前用in, 在整个某一天前用on,)

主要句型归类(三年级上册----六年级下册)

I询问姓名、年龄。

1, ----What’s your name? ----你叫什么名字?

----My name is ________. ----我叫……。

2, ----How old are you? ----你几岁了?

----I’m 12. ----我十二岁。

II询问颜色。

1, ----What colour is it? ----它是什么颜色的?

----It’s yellow and white. ----黄白相间。

2, ----What colour are they? ----它们是什么颜色的?

----They’re green. ----绿色的。

III 询问数量或价钱。

1, ----How many kites can you see? ----你可以看见几只风筝?

----I can see 12. ----我可以看见十二只风筝。

2, ----How many crayons do you have? ----你有多少支彩笔?

----I have 16. ----我有十六支。

3, ----How many people are there in your family? ----你家有几口人?

----Three. ----三口人。

4, ----How much is this dress? ----这条连衣裙多少钱?

----It’s ninety-nine yuan. ----九十九元。

5, ----How much are these apples? ----这些苹果多少钱?

----They’re thirty-five yuan. ----三十五元。

IV 询问时间或日期。

1, ----What time is it now? ----现在几点钟?

----It’s nine o’clock.. It’s time for English class. ----九点。该上英语课了。

(----It’s eight o’clock. It’s time to go to bed.) (----八点。该上床睡觉了。)

2, ----What day is it today? ----今天星期几?

----It’s Monday. ----星期一。

(----What do we have on Mondays? (----我们星期一上哪些课?

----We have Chinese, English, math …) ----语文、英语、数学……)

3, ----When is your birthday? ----你的生日是什么时候?

----It’s October 1st, our National Day. ----十月一日,国庆节。

4, ----When do you do morning exercises? ----你们什么时候做早锻炼? ----I usually do morning exercises at 8:30. ----我们通常8:30做早锻炼。 V 询问方位或地方。

1, ----Where is my toy car? ----我的玩具汽车在哪儿?

----It’s here, under the chair. ----在这儿,在椅子下面。

2, ----Where is the canteen? ----餐厅在哪儿?

----It’s on the first floor. ----在一楼。

3, ----Where are the keys? ----钥匙在哪儿?

----They’re in the door. ----在门上。

4, ----Excuse me. Where is the library, please? ----对不起,请问图书馆在哪儿? ----It’s near the post office. ----在邮局附近。

5, ----Where are you from? ----你从哪儿来?

----I’m from China. ----我从中国来。

6, ----Where does the rain come from? ----雨是从哪儿来的?

----It comes from the clouds. ----它是从云层里来的。

VI 询问想吃的东西。

1, ----What would you like for breakfast / lunch / dinner ? ----你早餐/中餐/晚餐想吃点什么? ----I’d like some bread and milk / rice and soup. ----我想吃面包和牛奶/米饭和汤。 2, ----What’s for breakfast / lunch / dinner? ----早餐/中餐/晚餐吃什么? ----Hamburgers and orange juice. ----汉堡包和橙汁。

VII 询问天气状况。

1, ----What’s the weather like in Beijing? ----北京的天气如何?

----It’s rainy today. How about New York? ----今天是雨天。纽约呢?

----It’s sunny and hot. ----今天是晴天,天气很热。

VIII 询问身体状况或情绪。

1, ----How do you feel? ----你感觉如何?

----I feel sick. ----我觉得不舒服。

2, ----What’s the matter? ----怎么了?

----My throat is sore. / I have a sore throat. ----我的喉咙疼。

3, ----How are you, Sarah? You look so happy. ----你好吗,莎拉?你看起来这么伤心。 ----I failed the math test. ----我的数学考试没有通过。

IX 询问职业、身份或人物。

1, ----What’s your father / mother? ----你的父亲 / 母亲是做什么的?

----He’s a doctor. / She’s a teacher. ----他是一名医生。/ 她是一名教师。 2, ----What does you mother / father do? ----你的母亲 / 父亲是做什么的?

----She’s a TV reporter. / He’s a teacher. He teaches English.

----她是一名电视台记者。/他是一名教师。他教英语。

3, ----Who’s that man / woman? ----那位男士 / 女士是谁?

----He’s my father. / She’s my mother. ----他是我父亲。 / 她是我母亲。

4, ----Who’s this boy / girl? ----那个男孩儿 / 女孩儿是谁?

----He’s my brother. / She’s my sister. ----他是我兄弟。 / 她是我姐妹。

5, ----Who’s your art teacher? ----你们的美术老师是谁?

----Miss Wang. ----王老师。

----What’s she like? ----她长什么样儿?

----She’s young and thin. ----她很年轻、苗条。

X 询问兴趣、喜好。

1, ----What’s your favourite food / drink? ----你最喜欢的食物 / 饮料是什么? ----Fish / orange juice. ----鱼。 / 橙汁。

2, ----What’s your favourite season? ----你最喜欢的季节是什么?

----Winter. ----冬天。

----Why do you like winter? ----你为什么喜欢冬天?

----Because I can make a snowman. ----因为可以堆雪人。

3, ----What’s your hobby? ----你的爱好是什么?

----I like collecting stamps. ----我喜欢集邮。

----What’s his hobby? ----他的爱好是什么?

----He likes riding a bike. ----他喜欢骑自行车。

4, ----Do you like peaches? ----你喜欢吃桃子吗?

----Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. ----喜欢。/ 不喜欢。

XI 询问平时一般或通常做的事情。

1, ----What do you do on Saturdays / on the weekends? ----你星期六 / 周末一般做什么? ----I usually do my homework. Sometimes I play football. ----我通常做作业,有时候踢足球。 XII 询问正在做的事情。

1, ----What are you doing? ----你在做什么?

----I’m doing the dishes. ----我在洗盘子。

2, ----What’s your father doing? ----你父亲正在做什么?

----He’s writing an e-mail. ----他正在写电子邮件。

3, ----What’s Mike doing? ----迈克正在干什么?

----He’s watching insects. ----他正在观察昆虫。

4, ----What’s the tiger doing? ----那只老虎在干什么?

----It’s running. ----它在奔跑。

5, ----What are the elephants doing? ----那些大象在干什么?

----They’re drinking. ----它们正在喝水。

XIII 询问将要做的事情。

1, ----What are you going to do? ----你准备做什么?

----I’m going to the cinema. ----我准备去看电影。

----When are you going to do? ----你准备什么时候去?

----This afternoon. ----今天下午。

2, ----Where are you going this afternoon? ----今天下午你准备到哪儿去?

----I’m going to the bookstore. ----我准备到书店去。

----What are you going to buy? ----你打算买点儿什么?

----I’m going to buy a comic book. ----我准备买本漫画书。

XIV 询问曾经做过或发生过的事情。

1, ----Where did you go last weekend / yesterday / on your holiday?

----你上周末/昨天/假期到哪儿去了?

----I went to Wuhan. ----我去了武汉。

2, ----How did you go there? ----你怎么去的?

----I went by train. ----我坐火车去的。

3, ----What did you do there? ----你在那儿做了些什么?

----I went shopping. ----我去购物了。

XV 一般疑问句。

1, ----Is this your bedroom? ----这是你的卧室吗?

----Yes, it is. ----是的。

----Is your sister in the living room? ----你姐姐在客厅吗?

----No, she isn’t. / Yes, she is. ----不在。/ 在。

2, ----Is this your skirt? ----这是你的短裙吗?

----Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. ----是的。/ 不是。

3, ----Is your English teacher young? ----你的英语老师年轻吗?

----Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t. ----是的。/不,她不年轻。

4, ----Are these / those / they cucumbers? ----这些 / 那些是黄瓜吗?

----Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. ----是的。/ 不是的。

5, ----Is there a river in the park? ----公园里有一条小河吗?

----Yes, there is. / No, there isn’t. ----有。/ 没有。

----Are there any bridges in your village? ----你们村子里有桥吗?

----Yes, there are. / No, there aren’t. ----有。/ 没有。

6, ----Can I wear my new shirt today? ----我今天可以穿新衬衫吗?

----Yes, you can. / No, you can’t. ----可以。/ 不可以。

7, ----Can you wash your clothes? ----你会洗衣服吗?

----Yes, I can. / No, I can’t. ----会。/ 不会。

8, ----Does your pen pal live in Shanghai? ----你的笔友住在上海吗?

----No, he doesn’t. He lives in Beijing. ----不,他住在北京。

9, ----Does she teach English? ----她教英语吗?

----No, she doesn’t. She teaches math. ----不,她教数学。

10, ----Did you read books yesterday? ----你昨天读书了吗?

----Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t. ----读了。/ 没读。

XVI ―How‖问句。

1, ----How do you go to school? ----你怎么上学?

----Usually I go to school on foot. Sometimes I go by bike. –

---我通常步行上学。有时候骑自行车。

2, ----How can I get to Zhongshan Park? ----我怎么到中山公园去?

----You can go by the No. 15 bus. ----你可以乘坐15路公汽。

(----Go straight for five minutes. Then turn left. It’s on the left.)

----直走五分钟,然后左转。公园就在左边。 3, ----How tall are you? ----你有多高?

----I’m 160 cm tall. I’m taller than you. ----我有160公分。我比你高。

4, ----How heavy are you? ----你有多重?

----I’m 48 kg. You’re heavier than me. ----我有48公斤。你比我重。

5, ----How do you feel? ----你感觉如何?

----I feel sick. ----我觉得不舒服。

----How does Chen Jie feel? ----陈洁感觉如何?

----She’s tired. ----她很疲倦。

XVII其他特殊疑问句。

1, ----What’s in the classroom? ----教室里有什么?

----A board, six lights, three fans, many desks and chairs.

----一块黑板、六盏灯,三把电扇和许多桌椅。

2, What about you? / How about you? ----你呢?

3, I like the white sweater with the green skirt. ----我喜欢这件白毛衣配这条绿短裙。 4, ----Whose is it? ----它是谁的?

----It’s mine / yours / his / hers. ----是我的。/ 你的。/ 他的。/ 她的。 5, ----What can you do? ----你会做什么?

----I’m helpful. I can sweep the floor and do the dishes. ----我很能干。我会扫地、洗盘子。 6, ----What’s your bedroom like? ----你的卧室是什么样儿的?

----There is a big closet and a new mirror. There are blue curtains.

----卧室里有一个大衣橱和一面新镜子。还有蓝色的窗帘。

小学英语语法知识点整理

1.人称代词 主格: I we you she he it they 宾格: me us you her him it them 形容词性物主代词:my our your her his its their 名词性物主代词: mine ours yours hers his its theirs 2.形容词和副词的比较级 (1) 一般在形容词或副词后+er older taller longer stronger, etc (2) 多音节词前+more more interesting, etc. (3) 双写最后一个字母,再+er bigger fatter, etc. (4) 把y变i,再+er heavier, earlier (5) 不规则变化: well-better, much/many-more, etc. 3.可数词的复数形式 Most nouns + s a book –books Nouns ending in a consonant +y - y+ ies a story—stories Nouns ending in s, sh, ch or x + es a glass—glasses a watch-watches Nouns ending in o +s or +es a piano—pianos a mango—mangoes Nouns ending in f or fe - f or fe +ves a knife –knives a shelf-shelves 4.不可数名词(单复数形式不变) bread, rice, water ,juice etc. 5. 缩略形式 I’m = I am you’re = you are she’s = she is he’s = he is it’s = it is who’s =who is can’t =can not isn’t=is not etc 6. a/an a book, a peach an egg an hour 7. Preposition: on, in ,in front of, between, next to, near, beside, at, behind. 表示时间: at six o’clock, at Christmas, at breakfast on Monday on 15th July On National Day in the evening in December in winter 8. 基数词和序数词 one – first two-second twenty-twentieth 9. Some /any I have some toys in my bedroom. Do you have any brothers or sisters? 10. be 动词

(1) Basic form: am/are/is

(2) 肯定和否定句 I am(not) from London.

My eyes are(not) small.

My hair is(not) long.

(3)一般疑问句: Am I a Chniese? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.

Are they American? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t.

Is the cat fat? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.

11. there be 结构 肯定句:

There is a „ There are „

一般疑问句:Is there „? Yes, there is./ No, there isn’t. Are there„?

Yes, there are. /No, there aren’t.

否定句: There isn’t „. There aren’t„.

12. 祈使句 Sit down please Don’t sit down, please.

13. 现在进行时.通常用“now”. 形式:

be + verb +ing eg: I am(not) doing my homework.

You/We/They are(not) reading.

He/She/It is(not) eating.

动词 —ing 的形式

Most verbs +ing walk—walking

Verbs ending in e -e + ing come—coming

Short verbs ending in a vowel + a consonant

run –running swim—swimming

14 一般现在时。

通常用 “usually, often, every day, sometimes”。

肯定句: I go to school on foot every day. She goes to school on foot every day.

一般疑问句: Do you jump high? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. Does he jump high? Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.

否定句: We don’t go to school on Sundays. My mother doesn’t like watching TV in the evening.

15. (情态)动词can,must, should 后面直接用动词原形。

eg: 1. I / He / She / They can sing.

2.You should keep quiet in the library.

16. 一般过去时态

(a) be 动词的过去式: I/He/she/it was(not)„. You/we/they were„.

一般疑问句was, were 放在句首。

(b) 动词过去式:

肯定句: I watched cartoons. She visited the zoo.

一般疑问句: Did you read book last night? Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. Did she clean the desk just now? Yes, she did. No, she didn’t. 否定句: They didn’t go the the part yesterday. He didn’t make model ships last week.

(3)动词过去式的变化:

规则动词的变化:

Most verbs +ed eg. planted,watered,climbed。

Verbs ending in e +d eg liked。

Verbs ending in a consonant +y --y +ied eg : study—studied Short verbs ending in a vowel + a consonant eg: stop --stopped 不规则动词的变化: is/am—was, are—were, do—did, have/has—had, make—made, fly-flew/u:/ eat—ate, take—took, run—ran, sing—sang, drink—drank 等等 17. “Wh-” questions. What are you doing? What colour is it? Which is your watch, the yellow one or the white one? How much is the toy bear?

初中英语完型填空答题技巧,,如果有一些单词不会怎么办

完形填空

阅读能力

选项

2-3

单词都说明

篇文章能胡乱填写

说难

完形填空文章都看

懂两种办

解决:自

背单词

符合自

排除

另外

做障碍;

其余选项单词意思

知道

选项单词文种

知道楼主满意

学习方法 做完形填空的方法

―完形填空‖是初中英语试题中固定而重要的题型。它是一种障碍性的测试题。在一定程度上考查考生的阅读能力、逻辑推理及分析归纳、综合判断能力。这种题型归纳起来有如下特点:

1. 降低了对单词本身的考查要求,重点考查考生对短文的整体理解,上下文的段落衔接,情理分析及推理判断能力。

2.针对初中学生的实际水平,一般采用故事体,尽量避免专业性太强的文章或论文体。近年来出现了以意义选择为主、语法选择逐渐减少的趋势。

―完形填空‖有多种形式,但它在基本设计原则上都是一致的。形式都是从短文中抽去若干词,让考生根据上下文填入适当的词,为了有助于考生填入适当的词,可以提供四个答案(其中包括一个正确答案),让考生选出正确的答案;也可以给出单词首字母完形填空,或者给出字母及单词长度(由几个字母组成);也可以不给考生提供任何线索,完全凭借考生对文章的理解和现有的语言能力完成。最常见的还是选择型的―完形填空‖。

―抽词法‖可以是有针对性地抽,也可以是随机地抽。但目前比较流行的是对文章理解能力的考查,而不是单纯对语法结构的考查。

完形填空题要求填入的词主要有:构成各种时态和用法区别的动词及短语动词;名词和介词;根据上下文意思及结构必须填入的形容词、副词、代词和连词;同义词、近义词等易混词。考查以实词为主,兼顾虚词和语法结构。难点主要集中在根据上下文作正确判断的词的用法上。

―完形填空‖旨在测试考生的综合应用语言能力。因此,要做好―完形填空‖,不仅要具备一定的词法、句法和惯用法等语法知识,而且还要具备阅读理解能力、综合分析能力和运用语言知识的实践能力。

传统的完形填空通常是将一篇逻辑性较强的短文,留出若干个空,然后采用―四选一‖的方法,将短文补充完整。它属于客观题型。如今的完形填空题除保留传统题型的优点外,还采用了选词填空(有多余选项)或根据上下文补全对话(或短文)等主观题型。但事实证明,完形填空通常是同学们较难把握的题型之一,且失分率较高。限于篇幅,本文着重谈谈客观题型的解法。

一、 目标要求

完形填空主要测试学生在具体语言环境中对文章的篇章结构、中心思想、推理判断、词语辨析、习惯用法、固定搭配等方面的能力要求,及对所学英语的综合运用能力、快速阅读

理解能力及逻辑推理判断能力等。

二、 解题步骤

在做完形填空题时,通常先弄清语境,并依据上下文进行合理的分析、判断,才能作出恰当的选择。具体可分为以下三步:

1. 通览全文,了解大意

答题时,应先越过空档,通读全文,理顺题意,找出信息词。这是做好完形填空题的关键。因为完形填空的特点是着眼于整体理解。我们如果把短文比作环环相扣的链条,那么由于空格的设置,―链条‖从第二句起有些地方就脱节了。有些同学习惯于提笔就填或边读边填,急于求成,然而,欲速则不达,结果往往由于―只见树木不见森林‖而事倍功半。因此我们应该依据首句给的启示,通过逻辑思维,借助短文中关键词所提供的信息,越过空档,尽快把全文读完,建立语言的整体感,帮助我们了解短文大意。

2. 综合考虑,先易后难

通览全文后,认真观察选项,瞻前顾后,仔细推敲,逐项选定。经过通读全文,对短文有了整体印象。在此基础上,可以根据全文大意,展开逻辑思维,分析这一空格处在句中的地位,前后的关系和它所起的作用,确定最佳答案。遇到困难,暂放一边,先易后难,这是解题之道。当遇到难以判断的空档时,不妨先放一边,继续往下做。因为有些答案是必须通过下文的理解后才能作出断定的。有时,前后信息之间还有相互提示作用。因此,当我们遇到难题时,不能久久停留于此,这样会浪费不必要的时间。

3. 复读检验,消除疏漏

完成所有空档后,还要再次通读全文,看看这时的短文行文是否流畅,意义是否连贯,逻辑关系是否合理。复查时,可从语法入手,检查一下句子的时态、主谓一致、代词的性、数、格以及词语的搭配等是否正确。凡遇疑点,必须根据文章的中心思想,从意义、语法的角度来仔细权衡,加以改正,弥补疏漏。

学习用品类:pen(钢笔), pencil(铅笔), book(书), eraser(橡皮), ruler(尺子), pencil-case(铅笔盒), marker(彩笔), bag(书包), glue(胶水), scissors(剪刀), paper(纸), sharpener(卷笔刀).

教室内物品类:door(门), window(窗户), blackboard(黑板), desk(课桌), chair(椅子), map(地图), picture(图画), light(灯), chalk(粉笔), floor(地板), wall(墙).

房间名称类:house(房子), apartment(公寓), room(房间), bedroom(卧室), living room(客厅), kitchen(厨房), bathroom(卫生间).

家用物品类:bed(床), television=TV(电视), table(桌子), telephone(电话), computer(电脑), refrigerator=fridge(电冰箱), closet(衣橱), dresser(床头柜), lamp(台灯), sofa(沙发), couch(长沙发), camera(照相机), cup(茶杯), glass(玻璃杯), bowl(碗), dish(盘子), chopsticks(筷子), spoon(勺子), fork(叉子), towel(毛巾), sink(水槽), stove(炉子), toilet(马桶), shower(淋浴器), bathtub(浴盆), brush(刷子), toothbrush(牙刷), umbrella(雨伞).

交通工具类:bus(公共汽车), car(小汽车), truck(大卡车), bicycle=bike(自行车), train(火车), airplane=plane(飞机), ship(轮船), boat(小船), taxi(出租车), cab(出租小汽车).

人体部位类:body(身体), head(头), hair(头发), eye(眼睛), ear(耳朵), nose(鼻子), mouth(嘴), face(脸), neck(脖子), shoulder(肩膀), arm(胳膊), elbow(胳膊肘), hand(手), finger(手指), stomach (肚子), leg(腿), knee(膝盖), foot(脚)→复数feet, toe(脚趾).

动物名称类:cat(猫), dog(狗), pig(猪), duck(鸭子), goose(鹅)→复数geese, bird(鸟), chicken(母鸡), chick(小鸡), cock(公鸡), bee(蜜蜂), butterfly(蝴蝶), cow(奶牛), horse(马), rabbit(兔子), monkey(猴子), panda(熊猫), tiger(老虎), lion(狮子), bear(熊), elephant(大象), donkey(驴), snake(蛇), frog(青蛙), fish(鱼), sheep(绵羊), goat(山羊), fox(狐狸), wolf(狼), mouse(老鼠)→复数mice, zebra(斑马), camel(骆驼), deer(鹿), giraffe(长颈鹿), kangaroo(袋鼠).

水果名称类:apple(苹果), banana(香蕉), pear(梨子), peach(桃子), orange(桔子), grape(葡萄), strawberry(草莓), melon(瓜), watermelon(西瓜), pineapple(菠萝), mango(芒果), coconut(椰子). 食品名称类:bread(面包), egg(鸡蛋), hamburger(汉堡包), sandwich(三明治), hot dog(热狗), ice cream(冰激凌), cake(蛋糕), cookies(饼干), pizza(比萨饼), donut(面包圈), toast(烤面包), jam(果酱), noodles(面条), dumplings(饺子), rice(米饭), soup(汤), French fries(炸薯条), sausage(香肠), beef(牛肉), mutton(羊肉), fish(鱼肉), pork(猪肉), chicken(鸡肉).

蔬菜名称类:cabbage(卷心菜), onion(洋葱), carrot(胡萝卜), pea(豌豆), eggplant(茄子), tomato(西红柿), potato(土豆), beans(豆子).

饮料名称类:juice(果汁), milk(牛奶), pop(汽水), coffee(咖啡), coke(可乐), tea(茶), water(水).

家庭成员类: grandfather(祖父/外祖父), grandmother(祖母/外祖母), grandpa(爷爷/姥爷), grandma(奶奶/姥姥), father(父亲), dad(爸爸), mother(母亲), mum/mom(妈妈), brother(兄/弟), sister(姐/妹), uncle(伯/叔/舅/姑/姨父), aunt(伯/婶/舅/姑/姨母), cousin(堂/表兄弟姐妹).

职业名称类:doctor(医生), nurse(护士), teacher(老师), worker(工人), driver(司机), farmer(农民), policeman(警察), pupil(小学生), student(中学生), clerk(职员), businessman(男商人), businesswoman(女商人), waiter(男服务员), waitress(女服务员), cashier(收银员), writer(作家), singer(歌手), actor(演员), dancer(舞蹈演员).

服装名称类:blouse(男衬衫), shirt(女衬衫), T-shirt(T恤衫), skirt(短裙), dress(连衣裙), jacket(夹克衫), cap(太阳帽), hat(礼帽), coat(大衣), sweater(毛衣), pants (长裤), shorts(短裤), jeans(牛仔裤), sock(袜子), shoe(鞋子), sandals(露趾凉鞋), mittens=mitts(连指手套), gloves(分指手套), scarf(围巾), raincoat(雨衣), swimsuit(游泳衣).

球类名称类:basketball(篮球), football(足球), volleyball(排球), tennis(网球), ping-pong=table

tennis(乒乓球), badminton(羽毛球), baseball(棒球).

方位名称类:east(东方),west(西方), north(北方), south(南方).

公共场所类:park(公园), library(图书馆), gym(体育馆), shop(商店), store(商场), cinema=movie theatre(电影院), restaurant(餐馆), market(市场), hotel(宾馆).

一日三餐类:breakfast(早餐), lunch(午餐), supper=dinner(晚餐).

季节名称类:season(季节), winter(冬季), spring(春季), summer(夏季), fall=autumn(秋季).

星期名称类:week(周), Sunday(星期日), Monday(星期一), Tuesday(星期二), Wednesday(星期

三),Thursday(星期四), Friday(星期五), Saturday(星期六).

月份名称类:month(月), January(一月), February(二月), March(三月), April(四月), May(五月), June(六月), July(七月), August(八月), September(九月), October(十月), November(十一月), December(十二月).

图形名称类:shape(图形、形状), line(直线), circle(圆形), square(方形), triangle(三角形).

节日名称类:New Year’s Day(新年、元旦), Spring Festival(春节), Women’s Day(妇女节), International workers’ Day=May Day(国际劳动节), Children’s Day(儿童节), Teachers’ Day(教师节), National Day(国庆节), Christmas Day(圣诞节).

教材中所学过的不规则动词的过去式分类记忆表

a.完全不规则:am,is-was, are-were, do/does-did, go-went, see-saw, say-said, have/has-had, fly-flew, speak-spoke, buy-bought, bring-brought, think-thought, teach-taught, eat-ate, lie-lay, can-could, will-would.

b.改变其中的元、辅音字母:give-gave, get-got, forget-forgot, come-came, run-ran, sing-sang, write-wrote,draw-drew, drink-drank, ride-rode, swim-swam, shine-shone, find-found, win-won, lose-lost, make-made.

c.原形和过去式同形:read-read, put-put, hit-hit, hurt-hurt, cost-cost.

教材中常用交际用语汇总记忆表

问候:Hi! Hello! Good morning/afternoon/evening! Nice to meet you! Nice to meet you, too. A:How are you? B: Fine,thank you./Very well,thank you.

介绍:My name is ____. / I am a student. / I’m from Canada. /This is ______.

告别:Good-bye! /Bye! /Bye-bye!Good night!See you later /tomorrow!

感谢:-Thank you(very much)/ Thanks a lot. -That’s OK. / That’s All right. / You are welcome. / Not at all.

道歉:-Sorry. / I am sorry. -That’s OK. / It’s all right.

邀请:-Would you like to go for a walk? / Will /Would you come to my birthday party?-Sure. / No, thanks.

请求允许:-May I go on a trip to Beijing?-Yes, you may. / No, you may not. / Sure. / Certainly. -Can I use your pencil?-Of course, you can.

祝愿与祝贺:Have a lovely day! / Good luck! / Happy New Year! / Merry Christmas!

You, too. / The same to you. -Happy birthday!-Thank you.

约会:A:Would you like to play with me this afternoon?B: Yes. When? A:At 12:00.

B: See you then.

打电话:A:Hello! May I speak to Mr. Wood? B:Yes, just a moment, please.

A:Hello! Is Kim there? B:No /Sorry, can I take a message.

就医:A:What’s the matter?/What’s wrong with you? B:I hurt my finger. I have a headache /stomachache.

就餐:A:Would you like something to eat / drink? B: Yes. I would like rice and chicken. A:What would you like? B:I would like some tea.

A:Would you like some more dumplings? B:Yes, please. / No, thanks / thank you.

A:May I have some more soup? B:It’s delicious.Sure / OK.

购物:A:Can/May/I help you? B: Yes. I want to buy a dress, please.

A:Here you are. B: May I try it on? A:Ok/Sure. B: It’s too big/small.

A:This one is just right. B: How much is it/ are they? A:One hundred yuan /dollars. B: It’s too expensive. /It’s very cheap. But I like it. I’ll take it.

问路:A:Excuse me. Do you know where is the________?

B: Yes. Go straight down the street. Turn left /turn right.

提供帮助:A: Can I help you? /May I help you? B: Yes, please. / No, thanks.

询问对方姓名:A:What’s your name? B:My name is ____.

A:What’s his/ her name? B: His /her name is ___.

A:Who are you? B: I’m _____.

询问在那儿:A: Where is the book? B:It is on the desk.

A:Where is Jenny? B:She is behind Danny.

询问是什么:A:What is it? B: It is a marker.

询问颜色:A:What colour is the sweater? B:It is black.

询问时间:A:What time is it? B: It’s seven.

A:When is Teachers’Day? B: It’s on September tenth.

询问地址和住址:A:Where are you from? B: I’m from Canada.

A:What’s your address? B: My address is 111 Park Road.

A:Where do you live? B: I live in an apartment.

询问日期:A:What day is today? B: It’s Monday.

A:What day is tomorrow? B: It’s Tuesday.

A:What day was yesterday? B: It was Sunday.

A:What’s the date? B: It’s October 19th.

询问对方正做什么:A:What are you doing? B: I’m writinging a letter.

A:What is he/ she doing? B: He /she is playing.

A:What are they doing? B: They are learning English.

询问对方做过些什么:A:What did you do? B: I went to the gym.

A:What did they do? B: They played basketball.

询问对方将要做什么:A:What will you do? B: I will fly a kite.

A:What is he going to do? B: He is going to learn English.

询问对方最喜欢的事物:A:What’s your favourite colour /food / fruit /shape/ season?

B: My favourite colour is white.

询问数量:A:How many pencils do you have? B: I have 10 pencils.

A:How many birds can you see? B: I can see 20 birds.

A:How many days are there in a week? B: There are seven days in a week.

询问价钱:A:How much is the scarf? B: Twenty yuan.

A:How much are the runners? B: They are thirty dollars.

谈论天气气温:A:How’s the weather today? B: It’s sunny/cloudy/windy/snowy.

A:What’s the temperature? B: It’s _______degrees.

询问年龄:A:How old are you? B:I’m fourteen years old.

A:How old is she/ he? B: He/ She is twenty .

询问身高:A:How tall are you? B: I’m 1.6 metres tall.

A:How tall is she/ he? B: She/ he is 1.7 metres tall.

询问事情发生的频率:

A:How often do you play basketball? B: About once a week.

A:How often does my mother clean my bedroom? B: Twice a day.

询问事情距离长短:A:How long is the trip? B: About two hours to Beijing.

A:How long does he go to school a day ? B: Eight hours.

询问路程的远近:

A:How far is it from here to Beijing? B: It’s one hundred kiliometres.

询问对方感觉怎么样: A:How do you feel? B: I feel sad.

询问对方是谁,问谁在做些什么?A:Who is this? B: This is a man.

A:Who is talking? B: Danny is talking.

询问东西是谁的:A:Whose hat is this? B: This is my hat /mine.

询问原因:A: I like to eat vegetables. Why? B:Because it’s good for your heal

英语一、将3——6年级所学单词系统列之,学生自学后加以辅导,并要求做到写、译。

二、单词分类复习。

1、字母:大小写辨认、排序。

2、数字:基数词和序数词(1-20;20-30;一百以内整十数)

3、颜色类:红、橙、黄、绿、蓝、黑、白、紫、粉、棕…..

4、时间类:年、月、日、星期、季节、时刻、早上、中午,下午、晚上…..

5、服饰类:衣帽鞋袜,短裙,连衣裙,T-恤,短裤,长裤…..

6、蔬菜类:白菜,洋葱,豌豆,胡萝卜,土豆,西红柿…..

7、食物:饺子,面条,面包,蛋糕,饼干,汉堡包,炸薯条,面包圈…..

8、水果类:苹果,梨,香蕉,橘子,葡萄,草莓,西瓜….

9、动物类:十二生肖

10、身体部位:头、脸,眼,耳,鼻,肩膀,胳膊,手,手指,膝盖,小腿,脚,脚趾。

11、家庭成员:爸,妈,(外)祖父母,兄弟,姐妹,(表、堂)兄弟姐妹,叔叔,阿姨。

12、方位:上,下,左,右,前,后,里,外,旁边,里面,外面…..

13、天气:风,云,雨,雪,阳光…..

14、地点:厨房,客厅,卧室,浴室,图书室,体育馆,商场,商店,车站,机场……

15、节日及时间:春节,新年,植树节,妇女节,劳动节,儿童节,建军节,教师节,母亲节,父亲节,感恩节,圣诞节…..

16、疑问词:what, where , who, how,when ,why……

17、系动词(be):am, is, are, will…..

18、情态动词can, may, must, would…

19、助动词:do, does, did ……

20、交通工具:火车,自行车,公共汽车,小汽车,飞机,船……

三、语法分类复习。

一)、名词。包括可数名词(有单数和复数的区别)和不可数名词。

a.不可数名词如:chalk, snow, rain, cake, ice cream, fish…..

b.可数名词变复数形式的情况:

1)、一般在名词末尾直接加s,如:books, flowers, pens, stamps…

2)、以s,x, ch, sh结尾的名词,末尾加es,如: buses, beaches, fishes…

3)、以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y为i,再加es,如: family-families, story-stories…

4)、单复数同形的:sheep,people,fish …

5)、不规则变化的:man-men, woman-women, child-children, wolf-wolves, leaf-leaves…

二)、动词。(包括动词的原形、现在分词、过去式和第三人称单数形式)

动词的现在分词,用于现在进行时态,其构成一般规律:

1、一般在动词末尾加ing:

talking reading flying looking cooking eating…

2、动词末尾是不发音的e,去掉e,再加ing:

take-taking come-coming ride-riding

have-having make-making …

3、以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的,双写这个辅音字母,再加ing:

run-running sit-sitting put-putting

begin-beginning hit-hitting swimming…

动词的过去式,用于一般过去时,其变化如下:

1、一般动词在末尾加ed:

looked talked played wanted walked …

2、以不发音的e结尾的,只加d:

write-writed like-liked …

3、有些动词的原形和过去式同形:sit put hurt read hit …

4、不规则变化的动词,要求学生熟记:

buy-bought bring-brought teach-taught

think-thought say-said go-went

see-saw come-came am,is-was

are-were eat-ate throw-threw

swim-swam lie-lay do-did

write-wrote make-made draw-drew…

动词的第三人称单数形式,用于一般现在时态,主语是第三人称单数的情况,其变化如下:

1、一般在动词末尾加s:

says asks sings answers looks makes…

2、以s、x、ch、sh结尾的动词加es:

teaches brushes…

3、以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y为i,再加es:

fly-flies try-tries…

四、简单的词性变化

1、名词变形容词

有些名词末尾加y,可以转变成形容词,如:

rain-rainy cloud-cloudy wind-windy

snow-snowy …

这些名词中,以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的,要双写这个字母,再加y:

sun-sunny

2、形容词变副词:

有些形容词的末尾加ly,可以转化成副词:

sad-sadly happy-happily slow-slowly

quiet-quietly loud-loudly quick-quickly…

3、形容词、副词的比较级:

a、在词尾加er: taller, shorter, younger, older…

b、以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的,双写这个辅音字母再加er: bigger

c、以辅音字母+y结尾的,去y变i,再加er: early-earlier

d、以不发音的e结尾的,只加r:late-later

f、不规则的变化形式:good-better

4、动词变名词

a.动名词的变化方法同动词的现在分词变化方法相同。

b.专门从事该项活动的职业者,在动词后加er或r,如:

play-player drive-driver farm-farmer…

五、简单的句子知识

1、陈述句

陈述句中,要注意的是主语和谓语部分的时态和人称的一致。如:

I am writing.

Li Ming likes French fries.

Danny bought ice cream yesterday.

2、一般疑问句

一般疑问句是将陈述句中的动词提到主语的前面,或在句首加助动词构成的问句,有肯定yes和否定no两种回答。如:

把be动词提到主语前面的:

She is a teacher.-Is she a teacher?

We are children. –Are you children?

把情态动词提到主语前面的:

I can sing well. –Can you sing well?

You may sit now. –May I sit now?

在句首加助动词的,原来句中的实意动词要恢复原形:

Li Nan likes donuts. –Does Li Nan like donuts?

Danny ate a hot dog yesterday. –Did Danny eat a hot dog yesterday?

You eat supper at 7:00. –Do you eat supper at 7:00?

3、特殊疑问句

特殊疑问句是由疑问词加上一般疑问句构成的疑问句,答语为陈述句,必须与问题一一对应。

询问年龄,用how old

How old is Jenny? She is eleven.

询问颜色,用what colour

What colour is your hair? It’s black.

询问数量,用how many

How many markers do you have? I have twelve markers.

询问价格,用how much

How much is a stamp? 2 yuan.

询问行为方式,用how

How do you go to school? By bus.

询问具体时刻,用what time

What time is it now? It’s 6:30.

询问时间,用when

When is Teacher’s Day? It’s September tenth.

询问多长时间,用how long

-How long is the trip?

-It’s eleven hours to Beijing.

询问地方,用where

Where is the book? It’s on the desk.

询问身高,用how tall

How tall is Xiao Ming? He is 1.3 meters tall.

询问事情的频率,用how often

How often do they play basketball?

They play basketball three times a week.

询问两地间距离,用how far:

How far is it from Canada to Beijing?

It’s about nine thousand kilometers.

询问天气,用

How’s the weather today?

It’s rainy.

询问星期,用what day

what day is it?

It(Today) is Wednesday.

询问日期,用

what is the date?

It’s January fourth.

询问姓名,用

What is your(his) name?

My name is Danny.

询问职业,用

What do you do?

I’am a teacher.

六、日常问、答用语。

1、- Good morning/ afternoon/evening. 早上/下午/晚上好。

- Good morning/ afternoon/evening. 早上/下午/晚上好。

2、- How are you? 你好吗?

- Fine, thank you/ thanks. 我很好,谢谢。(反问对方)And

about you?(你呢?)

3、- How do you do? 你好。(用于初次见面)

- How do you do?你好。

4、- Nice to meet /see you. 很高兴认识/见到你。

- Nice to meet /see you. 很高兴认识/见到你。

you / what about you /how

5、- Thank you./ Thanks. 谢谢。

- You’re welcome. 不用谢。

6、- I’m sorry. 对不起。

- hat’s all right. 没关系。

7、Excuse me.打扰一下

8、- May I have a book,please? 请问,能给我一本书吗?

- Yes./All right. Here you are. 好的。给你

9、- Can you help me ? 你能帮我吗?

- Sure. 当然(可以)。

七、介词的用法。

1、a和an(以a、e、i、o、u开头的单数名词前表示―一个‖时用an.其他―一个用a‖),any(用语疑问句和否定句)和some(用语肯定句),and(多方人称都做主语时)和with(一方作主语,而另一方则在句末)的用法区别。

2、or的用法(表示选择,择其一回答)。

3、介词用于时间短语时at/in/on/的用法区别。(在一天中的具体某一时刻前用at,在一天中某一段时间前用in, 在整个某一天前用on,)

主要句型归类(三年级上册----六年级下册)

I询问姓名、年龄。

1, ----What’s your name? ----你叫什么名字?

----My name is ________. ----我叫……。

2, ----How old are you? ----你几岁了?

----I’m 12. ----我十二岁。

II询问颜色。

1, ----What colour is it? ----它是什么颜色的?

----It’s yellow and white. ----黄白相间。

2, ----What colour are they? ----它们是什么颜色的?

----They’re green. ----绿色的。

III 询问数量或价钱。

1, ----How many kites can you see? ----你可以看见几只风筝?

----I can see 12. ----我可以看见十二只风筝。

2, ----How many crayons do you have? ----你有多少支彩笔?

----I have 16. ----我有十六支。

3, ----How many people are there in your family? ----你家有几口人?

----Three. ----三口人。

4, ----How much is this dress? ----这条连衣裙多少钱?

----It’s ninety-nine yuan. ----九十九元。

5, ----How much are these apples? ----这些苹果多少钱?

----They’re thirty-five yuan. ----三十五元。

IV 询问时间或日期。

1, ----What time is it now? ----现在几点钟?

----It’s nine o’clock.. It’s time for English class. ----九点。该上英语课了。

(----It’s eight o’clock. It’s time to go to bed.) (----八点。该上床睡觉了。)

2, ----What day is it today? ----今天星期几?

----It’s Monday. ----星期一。

(----What do we have on Mondays? (----我们星期一上哪些课?

----We have Chinese, English, math …) ----语文、英语、数学……)

3, ----When is your birthday? ----你的生日是什么时候?

----It’s October 1st, our National Day. ----十月一日,国庆节。

4, ----When do you do morning exercises? ----你们什么时候做早锻炼? ----I usually do morning exercises at 8:30. ----我们通常8:30做早锻炼。 V 询问方位或地方。

1, ----Where is my toy car? ----我的玩具汽车在哪儿?

----It’s here, under the chair. ----在这儿,在椅子下面。

2, ----Where is the canteen? ----餐厅在哪儿?

----It’s on the first floor. ----在一楼。

3, ----Where are the keys? ----钥匙在哪儿?

----They’re in the door. ----在门上。

4, ----Excuse me. Where is the library, please? ----对不起,请问图书馆在哪儿? ----It’s near the post office. ----在邮局附近。

5, ----Where are you from? ----你从哪儿来?

----I’m from China. ----我从中国来。

6, ----Where does the rain come from? ----雨是从哪儿来的?

----It comes from the clouds. ----它是从云层里来的。

VI 询问想吃的东西。

1, ----What would you like for breakfast / lunch / dinner ? ----你早餐/中餐/晚餐想吃点什么? ----I’d like some bread and milk / rice and soup. ----我想吃面包和牛奶/米饭和汤。 2, ----What’s for breakfast / lunch / dinner? ----早餐/中餐/晚餐吃什么? ----Hamburgers and orange juice. ----汉堡包和橙汁。

VII 询问天气状况。

1, ----What’s the weather like in Beijing? ----北京的天气如何?

----It’s rainy today. How about New York? ----今天是雨天。纽约呢?

----It’s sunny and hot. ----今天是晴天,天气很热。

VIII 询问身体状况或情绪。

1, ----How do you feel? ----你感觉如何?

----I feel sick. ----我觉得不舒服。

2, ----What’s the matter? ----怎么了?

----My throat is sore. / I have a sore throat. ----我的喉咙疼。

3, ----How are you, Sarah? You look so happy. ----你好吗,莎拉?你看起来这么伤心。 ----I failed the math test. ----我的数学考试没有通过。

IX 询问职业、身份或人物。

1, ----What’s your father / mother? ----你的父亲 / 母亲是做什么的?

----He’s a doctor. / She’s a teacher. ----他是一名医生。/ 她是一名教师。 2, ----What does you mother / father do? ----你的母亲 / 父亲是做什么的?

----She’s a TV reporter. / He’s a teacher. He teaches English.

----她是一名电视台记者。/他是一名教师。他教英语。

3, ----Who’s that man / woman? ----那位男士 / 女士是谁?

----He’s my father. / She’s my mother. ----他是我父亲。 / 她是我母亲。

4, ----Who’s this boy / girl? ----那个男孩儿 / 女孩儿是谁?

----He’s my brother. / She’s my sister. ----他是我兄弟。 / 她是我姐妹。

5, ----Who’s your art teacher? ----你们的美术老师是谁?

----Miss Wang. ----王老师。

----What’s she like? ----她长什么样儿?

----She’s young and thin. ----她很年轻、苗条。

X 询问兴趣、喜好。

1, ----What’s your favourite food / drink? ----你最喜欢的食物 / 饮料是什么? ----Fish / orange juice. ----鱼。 / 橙汁。

2, ----What’s your favourite season? ----你最喜欢的季节是什么?

----Winter. ----冬天。

----Why do you like winter? ----你为什么喜欢冬天?

----Because I can make a snowman. ----因为可以堆雪人。

3, ----What’s your hobby? ----你的爱好是什么?

----I like collecting stamps. ----我喜欢集邮。

----What’s his hobby? ----他的爱好是什么?

----He likes riding a bike. ----他喜欢骑自行车。

4, ----Do you like peaches? ----你喜欢吃桃子吗?

----Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. ----喜欢。/ 不喜欢。

XI 询问平时一般或通常做的事情。

1, ----What do you do on Saturdays / on the weekends? ----你星期六 / 周末一般做什么? ----I usually do my homework. Sometimes I play football. ----我通常做作业,有时候踢足球。 XII 询问正在做的事情。

1, ----What are you doing? ----你在做什么?

----I’m doing the dishes. ----我在洗盘子。

2, ----What’s your father doing? ----你父亲正在做什么?

----He’s writing an e-mail. ----他正在写电子邮件。

3, ----What’s Mike doing? ----迈克正在干什么?

----He’s watching insects. ----他正在观察昆虫。

4, ----What’s the tiger doing? ----那只老虎在干什么?

----It’s running. ----它在奔跑。

5, ----What are the elephants doing? ----那些大象在干什么?

----They’re drinking. ----它们正在喝水。

XIII 询问将要做的事情。

1, ----What are you going to do? ----你准备做什么?

----I’m going to the cinema. ----我准备去看电影。

----When are you going to do? ----你准备什么时候去?

----This afternoon. ----今天下午。

2, ----Where are you going this afternoon? ----今天下午你准备到哪儿去?

----I’m going to the bookstore. ----我准备到书店去。

----What are you going to buy? ----你打算买点儿什么?

----I’m going to buy a comic book. ----我准备买本漫画书。

XIV 询问曾经做过或发生过的事情。

1, ----Where did you go last weekend / yesterday / on your holiday?

----你上周末/昨天/假期到哪儿去了?

----I went to Wuhan. ----我去了武汉。

2, ----How did you go there? ----你怎么去的?

----I went by train. ----我坐火车去的。

3, ----What did you do there? ----你在那儿做了些什么?

----I went shopping. ----我去购物了。

XV 一般疑问句。

1, ----Is this your bedroom? ----这是你的卧室吗?

----Yes, it is. ----是的。

----Is your sister in the living room? ----你姐姐在客厅吗?

----No, she isn’t. / Yes, she is. ----不在。/ 在。

2, ----Is this your skirt? ----这是你的短裙吗?

----Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. ----是的。/ 不是。

3, ----Is your English teacher young? ----你的英语老师年轻吗?

----Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t. ----是的。/不,她不年轻。

4, ----Are these / those / they cucumbers? ----这些 / 那些是黄瓜吗?

----Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. ----是的。/ 不是的。

5, ----Is there a river in the park? ----公园里有一条小河吗?

----Yes, there is. / No, there isn’t. ----有。/ 没有。

----Are there any bridges in your village? ----你们村子里有桥吗?

----Yes, there are. / No, there aren’t. ----有。/ 没有。

6, ----Can I wear my new shirt today? ----我今天可以穿新衬衫吗?

----Yes, you can. / No, you can’t. ----可以。/ 不可以。

7, ----Can you wash your clothes? ----你会洗衣服吗?

----Yes, I can. / No, I can’t. ----会。/ 不会。

8, ----Does your pen pal live in Shanghai? ----你的笔友住在上海吗?

----No, he doesn’t. He lives in Beijing. ----不,他住在北京。

9, ----Does she teach English? ----她教英语吗?

----No, she doesn’t. She teaches math. ----不,她教数学。

10, ----Did you read books yesterday? ----你昨天读书了吗?

----Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t. ----读了。/ 没读。

XVI ―How‖问句。

1, ----How do you go to school? ----你怎么上学?

----Usually I go to school on foot. Sometimes I go by bike. –

---我通常步行上学。有时候骑自行车。

2, ----How can I get to Zhongshan Park? ----我怎么到中山公园去?

----You can go by the No. 15 bus. ----你可以乘坐15路公汽。

(----Go straight for five minutes. Then turn left. It’s on the left.)

----直走五分钟,然后左转。公园就在左边。 3, ----How tall are you? ----你有多高?

----I’m 160 cm tall. I’m taller than you. ----我有160公分。我比你高。

4, ----How heavy are you? ----你有多重?

----I’m 48 kg. You’re heavier than me. ----我有48公斤。你比我重。

5, ----How do you feel? ----你感觉如何?

----I feel sick. ----我觉得不舒服。

----How does Chen Jie feel? ----陈洁感觉如何?

----She’s tired. ----她很疲倦。

XVII其他特殊疑问句。

1, ----What’s in the classroom? ----教室里有什么?

----A board, six lights, three fans, many desks and chairs.

----一块黑板、六盏灯,三把电扇和许多桌椅。

2, What about you? / How about you? ----你呢?

3, I like the white sweater with the green skirt. ----我喜欢这件白毛衣配这条绿短裙。 4, ----Whose is it? ----它是谁的?

----It’s mine / yours / his / hers. ----是我的。/ 你的。/ 他的。/ 她的。 5, ----What can you do? ----你会做什么?

----I’m helpful. I can sweep the floor and do the dishes. ----我很能干。我会扫地、洗盘子。 6, ----What’s your bedroom like? ----你的卧室是什么样儿的?

----There is a big closet and a new mirror. There are blue curtains.

----卧室里有一个大衣橱和一面新镜子。还有蓝色的窗帘。

小学英语语法知识点整理

1.人称代词 主格: I we you she he it they 宾格: me us you her him it them 形容词性物主代词:my our your her his its their 名词性物主代词: mine ours yours hers his its theirs 2.形容词和副词的比较级 (1) 一般在形容词或副词后+er older taller longer stronger, etc (2) 多音节词前+more more interesting, etc. (3) 双写最后一个字母,再+er bigger fatter, etc. (4) 把y变i,再+er heavier, earlier (5) 不规则变化: well-better, much/many-more, etc. 3.可数词的复数形式 Most nouns + s a book –books Nouns ending in a consonant +y - y+ ies a story—stories Nouns ending in s, sh, ch or x + es a glass—glasses a watch-watches Nouns ending in o +s or +es a piano—pianos a mango—mangoes Nouns ending in f or fe - f or fe +ves a knife –knives a shelf-shelves 4.不可数名词(单复数形式不变) bread, rice, water ,juice etc. 5. 缩略形式 I’m = I am you’re = you are she’s = she is he’s = he is it’s = it is who’s =who is can’t =can not isn’t=is not etc 6. a/an a book, a peach an egg an hour 7. Preposition: on, in ,in front of, between, next to, near, beside, at, behind. 表示时间: at six o’clock, at Christmas, at breakfast on Monday on 15th July On National Day in the evening in December in winter 8. 基数词和序数词 one – first two-second twenty-twentieth 9. Some /any I have some toys in my bedroom. Do you have any brothers or sisters? 10. be 动词

(1) Basic form: am/are/is

(2) 肯定和否定句 I am(not) from London.

My eyes are(not) small.

My hair is(not) long.

(3)一般疑问句: Am I a Chniese? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.

Are they American? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t.

Is the cat fat? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.

11. there be 结构 肯定句:

There is a „ There are „

一般疑问句:Is there „? Yes, there is./ No, there isn’t. Are there„?

Yes, there are. /No, there aren’t.

否定句: There isn’t „. There aren’t„.

12. 祈使句 Sit down please Don’t sit down, please.

13. 现在进行时.通常用“now”. 形式:

be + verb +ing eg: I am(not) doing my homework.

You/We/They are(not) reading.

He/She/It is(not) eating.

动词 —ing 的形式

Most verbs +ing walk—walking

Verbs ending in e -e + ing come—coming

Short verbs ending in a vowel + a consonant

run –running swim—swimming

14 一般现在时。

通常用 “usually, often, every day, sometimes”。

肯定句: I go to school on foot every day. She goes to school on foot every day.

一般疑问句: Do you jump high? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. Does he jump high? Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.

否定句: We don’t go to school on Sundays. My mother doesn’t like watching TV in the evening.

15. (情态)动词can,must, should 后面直接用动词原形。

eg: 1. I / He / She / They can sing.

2.You should keep quiet in the library.

16. 一般过去时态

(a) be 动词的过去式: I/He/she/it was(not)„. You/we/they were„.

一般疑问句was, were 放在句首。

(b) 动词过去式:

肯定句: I watched cartoons. She visited the zoo.

一般疑问句: Did you read book last night? Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. Did she clean the desk just now? Yes, she did. No, she didn’t. 否定句: They didn’t go the the part yesterday. He didn’t make model ships last week.

(3)动词过去式的变化:

规则动词的变化:

Most verbs +ed eg. planted,watered,climbed。

Verbs ending in e +d eg liked。

Verbs ending in a consonant +y --y +ied eg : study—studied Short verbs ending in a vowel + a consonant eg: stop --stopped 不规则动词的变化: is/am—was, are—were, do—did, have/has—had, make—made, fly-flew/u:/ eat—ate, take—took, run—ran, sing—sang, drink—drank 等等 17. “Wh-” questions. What are you doing? What colour is it? Which is your watch, the yellow one or the white one? How much is the toy bear?

初中英语完型填空答题技巧,,如果有一些单词不会怎么办

完形填空

阅读能力

选项

2-3

单词都说明

篇文章能胡乱填写

说难

完形填空文章都看

懂两种办

解决:自

背单词

符合自

排除

另外

做障碍;

其余选项单词意思

知道

选项单词文种

知道楼主满意

学习方法 做完形填空的方法

―完形填空‖是初中英语试题中固定而重要的题型。它是一种障碍性的测试题。在一定程度上考查考生的阅读能力、逻辑推理及分析归纳、综合判断能力。这种题型归纳起来有如下特点:

1. 降低了对单词本身的考查要求,重点考查考生对短文的整体理解,上下文的段落衔接,情理分析及推理判断能力。

2.针对初中学生的实际水平,一般采用故事体,尽量避免专业性太强的文章或论文体。近年来出现了以意义选择为主、语法选择逐渐减少的趋势。

―完形填空‖有多种形式,但它在基本设计原则上都是一致的。形式都是从短文中抽去若干词,让考生根据上下文填入适当的词,为了有助于考生填入适当的词,可以提供四个答案(其中包括一个正确答案),让考生选出正确的答案;也可以给出单词首字母完形填空,或者给出字母及单词长度(由几个字母组成);也可以不给考生提供任何线索,完全凭借考生对文章的理解和现有的语言能力完成。最常见的还是选择型的―完形填空‖。

―抽词法‖可以是有针对性地抽,也可以是随机地抽。但目前比较流行的是对文章理解能力的考查,而不是单纯对语法结构的考查。

完形填空题要求填入的词主要有:构成各种时态和用法区别的动词及短语动词;名词和介词;根据上下文意思及结构必须填入的形容词、副词、代词和连词;同义词、近义词等易混词。考查以实词为主,兼顾虚词和语法结构。难点主要集中在根据上下文作正确判断的词的用法上。

―完形填空‖旨在测试考生的综合应用语言能力。因此,要做好―完形填空‖,不仅要具备一定的词法、句法和惯用法等语法知识,而且还要具备阅读理解能力、综合分析能力和运用语言知识的实践能力。

传统的完形填空通常是将一篇逻辑性较强的短文,留出若干个空,然后采用―四选一‖的方法,将短文补充完整。它属于客观题型。如今的完形填空题除保留传统题型的优点外,还采用了选词填空(有多余选项)或根据上下文补全对话(或短文)等主观题型。但事实证明,完形填空通常是同学们较难把握的题型之一,且失分率较高。限于篇幅,本文着重谈谈客观题型的解法。

一、 目标要求

完形填空主要测试学生在具体语言环境中对文章的篇章结构、中心思想、推理判断、词语辨析、习惯用法、固定搭配等方面的能力要求,及对所学英语的综合运用能力、快速阅读

理解能力及逻辑推理判断能力等。

二、 解题步骤

在做完形填空题时,通常先弄清语境,并依据上下文进行合理的分析、判断,才能作出恰当的选择。具体可分为以下三步:

1. 通览全文,了解大意

答题时,应先越过空档,通读全文,理顺题意,找出信息词。这是做好完形填空题的关键。因为完形填空的特点是着眼于整体理解。我们如果把短文比作环环相扣的链条,那么由于空格的设置,―链条‖从第二句起有些地方就脱节了。有些同学习惯于提笔就填或边读边填,急于求成,然而,欲速则不达,结果往往由于―只见树木不见森林‖而事倍功半。因此我们应该依据首句给的启示,通过逻辑思维,借助短文中关键词所提供的信息,越过空档,尽快把全文读完,建立语言的整体感,帮助我们了解短文大意。

2. 综合考虑,先易后难

通览全文后,认真观察选项,瞻前顾后,仔细推敲,逐项选定。经过通读全文,对短文有了整体印象。在此基础上,可以根据全文大意,展开逻辑思维,分析这一空格处在句中的地位,前后的关系和它所起的作用,确定最佳答案。遇到困难,暂放一边,先易后难,这是解题之道。当遇到难以判断的空档时,不妨先放一边,继续往下做。因为有些答案是必须通过下文的理解后才能作出断定的。有时,前后信息之间还有相互提示作用。因此,当我们遇到难题时,不能久久停留于此,这样会浪费不必要的时间。

3. 复读检验,消除疏漏

完成所有空档后,还要再次通读全文,看看这时的短文行文是否流畅,意义是否连贯,逻辑关系是否合理。复查时,可从语法入手,检查一下句子的时态、主谓一致、代词的性、数、格以及词语的搭配等是否正确。凡遇疑点,必须根据文章的中心思想,从意义、语法的角度来仔细权衡,加以改正,弥补疏漏。


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